Gümüşlük hill (see coordinates): this foto was sent by our correspondent Maxim Yakovenko. The pyramid shape and the pyramid edges can be seen, as well as a small plattform on top. The access to the pyramid top is from north via an elevated (natural?) causeway.

Gümüşlük  is situated 24 km northwest of Bodrum , which was home of one of the seven ancient wonders of the world - The Mausoleum of Halikarnassos.

Gümüşlük,Gümüs is the Turkish word for Silver, but it also has the latin word cumulus in its meaning, revealing a cumulus like hill being of importance. 


Gümüşlük peninsular with pyramid shaped hill as seen from Gümüşlük village

Google earth SAT image of Gümüşlük peninsular with pyramid overlay by G.Lukacs. The pyramid sketch follows the white lines to be seen on the satellite photo. The pyramid structure seems to be oriented with its sides towards NE/SW.


Gümüşlük was built on the site of the ancient Carian city of Myndos. Its seafront sections slid into the sea due to an earthquake in ancient, prehistoric times. The land site is yet to be fully excavated. Traces of antiquity can be spotted in many places.

Throughout the history, Gümüşlük has always been a natural harbour for medium size boats and yachts.
Even "Piri Reis" the famous Turkish admiral has devoted two full pages for Gümüşlük harbour in his book, centuries ago. It is astounding to see that the satellite photos of today and the map of Gümüşlük drawn by "Piri Reis" are almost the same.

Piri Reis Map of  Gümüşlük and aerial view above





One of the earliest references to Myndos dates back to the 5th century B.C
when it was a small town paying one-twelfth of a talent in the Delian Confederacy and contributing one ship to the fleet of Amagoras around 500 B.C' However, Gumuşluk is not the site of the original Lelegian town of Myndos . The original city is located, about 3 km to the SE of the present site of Gumuşluk, on the hilltop at Bozdag. Very little survives of the old Lelegian site, with the exception of the remains of a circuit wall and the foundation times to the early part of the 4th century B.C. This site was later remembered as Palaimyndos or Old Myndus. It was during Mausolos' time, that new Myndus or "Classical Myndus" was established at the present site near the modern village of Gumusluk . Mausolos incorporated six of the Lelegian towns in Halicarnassus , but rebuilt Syangela and Myndos on new and enlarged sites. The majority of the Lelegian inhabitants of the peninsular had been transplanted to Halicarnassus to populate the new capital of Caria , and for a long time Myndus was severely under populated and much of the area within the walls was unoccupied. When the philosopher Diogenes visited the city, he warned the citizens about their big gates, advising the inhabitants to close their gates to prevent their city from running away, See Note 4 The town was unsuccessfully attacked by Alexander The Great on his way to taking Halicarnassus in 334 B.C Following Alexander's death Myndos passed into the hands of Ptotemy II (The last dynasty of independent Egypt ) until 197 B.C. when the city became a protectorate of the Rhodians, allies or the Egyptians, during the conflict with Antiochus III of Syria . It was during this time, under the protection of the Rhodians, that the Myndians first began to issue their own coinage. There are a number of historical references to an active Jewish community in the town circa 139 B.C : The city was held for a short time, around 131 B.C. by the rebel Aristonicus, (Anstonicus/Aristonikos the self professed Eumenes III pretender to the throne of Pergamon who led an uprising against Rome in 131 B.C.) In 43 B.C. Myndos sheltered the fleet of Cassius following the murder of Julius Caesar. The city was punished by Mark Anthony who handed it over to Rhodians. But soon it was permitted to return its former state because of harsh and strict rule of Rhodians. Under the Roman Empire , although Myndians are frequently found abroad. the city seems to have been less prosperous than most of the cities of the time. The silver mines which were active during the more recent times are not mentioned in historical sources. The only product of Myndos that gets a mention was the cheap wine, reputedly of poor quality, which was mixed with sea water, apparently not uncommon practice in ancient times. The wine was described as relaxing for the stomach, causing flatulence and leaving a hangover. This seemingly unattractive tipple led to the HyrxBans being dubbed "brine drinkers".
The city wall was originally some 3.5 km long. enclosing the headland as well as a large area on the mainland, but the headland portion has disappeared since the l9th century. On the mainland, according to a survey in 1971, it is still possible to follow the wall " for its whole length, and is best preserved on the south-east, the most vulnerable side, where It strengthened with frequent towers." The wall is approximately 3m thick, built of regular ashlar Another wall runs down the spine of the headland on a north south axis; this also is about 3 m thick, but built of larger blocks less regularly fitted. This wall has sometimes been called the "Lelegian wall", but its masonry is not Lelegian In style, and it is now generally accepted that Gumuşluk is not on the site of the original Lelegian town. It has been suggested that this wall belongs to an earlier scheme of fortification that was abandoned in favour of the, now missing, wall which encircled the whole of the headland. There is a small, but interesting, entry for Myndos in The Archaeological Atlas of The Aegean which makes reference to the ruins of a Christian church located at the highest point on the site, surrounded by the so-called 'Lelegian Wall'. Additionally it describes a "large Early Christian ecclesiastical complex, including a basilica and several additional buildings, on the site of the ancient city" Very little, if anything, survives of the other ruins seen by early travellers in the 18°' century, who reported seeing a theatre and a stadium. It is quite possible that the masonry from these buildings has been "recycled' and now forms part of the foundations and buildings of the modern village. Although there are no major structures remaining it is still possible to see
sections of mosaics on the shore & beneath the water of the entrance to the harbour and on the spit of land to the North West of the harbour. Whilst It may be tempting to take a small piece of tessera home as a souvenir, you should be aware that whole of the site is designated a protected area, and the removal of any artifact or the destruction of any archaeological item is strictly prohibited and punishable under Turkish law. Usually offenders are let off with a warning but the Turks like to lock up a couple of tourists a year just to make an example. Other features are visible just below the water, there are the remains of a tower, and more structures are visible in the north-western bay. Although diving with scuba tanks is prohibited, there are no restrictions on diving with a snorkel. Rock cuttings may be seen in various places on the hillside, and a few tombs have been noticed outside the walls. However, inscriptions are remarkably scarce. The eminent Greek philosopher Diogenes, apparently, wasn't impressed by the size of the gates to Myndos - When he went to Myndus, he saw some very large gates, but the city was a small one, and said "Oh men of Myndus, shut your gates, lest your city should steal out." In some ways Diogenes may have been right; there is archaeological evidence which suggests that due to difficulties experienced manning the new cities of Halikarnassos. Theangela and Myndos, it was found expedient to reduce the size of the gates by more than half.
Alexander's attack on Myndos
Alexander wanted to give Halicarnassus as much chance as possible to surrender, this being a campaign of acquisition rather than devastation, A short time after he attacked Halicarnassus, Alexander entered secret negotiations; these negotiations were initiated by Greek sympathizers in Myndos. The purpose of the talks was to get Myndos to surrender to Alexander. Although the acquisition was a part of the plan, the main reason Alexander wanted Myndos was that town's surrender would weaken the resolve of the people In Halicarnassus, thus making it easier for Alexander to capture it. The Greek sympathizers, Alexander and his men devised a plan for the surrender of Myndos. It. would happen under the cover of darkness; the Greek sympathizers would open the gates, and let the Macedonians in. The Macedonians would then engage in a few brief skirmishes, and Myndos would be Alexander's. Unfortunately, all did not go as planned; when Alexander and his forces arrived at Myndos, they found that the gates were not open and they did not have the necessary siege engines or ladders to storm the city. Even so, Alexander ordered his sappers to start undermining the walls, but without the support of the engines or tortoises (a means of protection normally used by the soldiers dispatched to undermine defensive walls), they proceeded with difficulty. Soon after the attack, the Persian navy reinforced the protection of Myndos. Crews of the ships around Myndos left their posts to defend their city. After some fierce hand-to-hand fighting, Alexander's men were driven out.
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